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The possible tones are bounded only by the number of possible emotions a human being can have.
Official and technical documentation tends to employ a formal tone throughout the piece.
Authors set a tone in literature by conveying emotions/feelings through words.
All pieces of literature, even official documents and technical documents, have some sort of tone.
Authors create tone through the use of various other literary elements, such as diction or word choice; syntax, the grammatical arrangement of words in a text for effect; imagery, or vivid appeals to the senses; details, facts that are included or omitted; and figurative language, the comparison of seemingly unrelated things for sub-textual purposes.
Some other examples of literary tone are: airy, comic, condescending, facetious, funny, heavy, intimate, ironic, light, playful, sad, serious, sinister, solemn, somber, and threatening.
Tone and mood are not the same, although they are frequently confused.
An example: "Charlie surveyed the classroom but it was really his mother congratulating himself for snatching the higher test grade, the smug smirk on his face growing brighter and brighter as he confirmed the inferiority of his peers." The tone here is one of arrogance; the quip "inferiority of his peers" shows Charlie's belief in his own prowess.
The words "surveyed" and "congratulating himself" show Charlie as seeing himself better than the rest of his class.
When we speak, our tone of voice conveys our mood—frustrated, cheerful, critical, gloomy, or angry.
When we write, our images and descriptive phrases get our feelings across—guarded optimism, unqualified enthusiasm, objective indifference, resignation, or dissatisfaction.