Trouble In Mind Leon Litwack Thesis

Trouble In Mind Leon Litwack Thesis-65
This ratio has similarly dropped for property crimes such as burglary (from 4.1 to 3.0) and theft (from 3.7 to 3.1).Second, the rate of incarceration for African Americans has soared to astronomical levels unknown in any other society, even the Soviet Union at the zenith of the Gulag or South Africa at the acme of the violent struggles over apartheid.Nor that it cannot be directed on those same categories for reasons unrelated to their actual propensity towards criminal offending.

This ratio has similarly dropped for property crimes such as burglary (from 4.1 to 3.0) and theft (from 3.7 to 3.1).Second, the rate of incarceration for African Americans has soared to astronomical levels unknown in any other society, even the Soviet Union at the zenith of the Gulag or South Africa at the acme of the violent struggles over apartheid.Nor that it cannot be directed on those same categories for reasons unrelated to their actual propensity towards criminal offending.

In four short decades the ethnic composition of the U.

S carceral stock , turning over from 70% white at the mid-century point to nearly 70% black and Latino today, although the ethnic distribution of criminal activity did not change change fundamentally during that period.

Three brute facts stare the sociologist of racial inequality and incarceration in America in the face as the new millennium dawns.

First, in 1989 for the first time in national history, African Americans (who comprise 6% of the countrys population) made up a majority of men walking in through prison gates, marking an epochal transformation in the recruitment of inmates.

A third trend interpellates the social analyst of race, state, and punishment in the United States: the past two decades have witnessed a swift and steady between the imprisonment rates of blacks and whites (from about 1 for 5 to 1 for 8.5), and this rising racial disproportionality can be traced directly to a single federal policy, namely, the War on Drugs launched by Ronald Reagan and expanded by the administrations of George Bush and William Jefferson Clinton.

Breakfast Club Summary Essay - Trouble In Mind Leon Litwack Thesis

That this war targeted poor African-American neighborhoods explains the signal exception to the consistent reduction of racial disparities in offending rates: in the late eighties, blacks suddenly became five times more likely as whites to be arrested for drug-related crimes, as compared to twice as likely throughout the previous three decades.

One must likewise avoid reducing penal policies either to an instrumental logic of domination and interest or to an expressive logic of communication and identity, for these dynamics typically work most effectively in tandem.

To fully grasp the , its capacity to articulate dynamically with a range of social relations and purposes, it is thus indispensable to effect a second rupture, this time with the narrow materialism and reductionist classism of Rusche and Kirschheimer for which every system of production tends to discover punishments which correspond to its productive relationships.

Likewise, inmates throughout Western Europe are overwhelmingly drawn from the deskilled and precarious fractions of the working class.

But this does not mean that the penal apparatus cannot be trained also on stigmatized and marginalized groups based on social principles of vision and division other than class.

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