Individuals that displayed more stress related behavior had a higher chance of being positive for helminth infection, strongly suggesting that immunological impact of chronic stress incurred from being held in captivity.
In all measured physiological parameters, the effects of parasitic infection significantly modified the response of infected snails relative to uninfected individuals, while there was a high degree of variability between snails infected with different species of parasite.
Overall, the association between marine trematodes and their gastropod host was significantly altered by exposure to simulated OA conditions, highlighting the need to incorporate parasitology into the field of OA research.
protumnus more susceptible to disturbance and prone to extinction.
Having focused in detail on the population biology of just one species, I then analysed the evolution of Thestor as a whole.
The metabolic status of the host snails was also significantly altered by exposure to acidified seawater.
Changes in oxygen consumption rates and tissue glucose concentrations of host snails indicated an increase in metabolic stress followed by metabolic depression as seawater p H was reduced.
Stressors associated with OA can negatively affect the physiological performance of individual marine organisms, disrupting inter- and intra-specific interactions such as competition, predation, and parasitism.
Parasitic infection can also have wide-ranging negative effects on marine organisms, and has been found to interact synergistically with some abiotic stressors.
The physiological performance of infected and uninfected snails was significantly and negatively affected by stressors associated with OA.
Shell growth rates were significantly reduced, and shell dissolution significantly increased, in an acidified environment.