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That is, in some studies, frequent questioning at higher cognitive levels has led to more achievement than frequent questioning at the lower cognitive levels.
The doctoral student becomes intrigued by these equivocal findings and begins to speculate about some possible explanations.
In a blinding flash of insight, the student remembers hearing somewhere that an eccentric Frenchman named Piaget said something about students being categorized into levels of cognitive development.
The answers to these questions can come from only one source, a thorough review of the literature (i.e., a review that includes both the theoretical and empirical literature as well as apparent gaps in the literature).
Perhaps, a hypothetical situation can best illustrate the development and role of the theoretical framework in the formalization of a dissertation topic or research investigation.
” These words instantly send the harried doctoral student to the library (giving away our ages) in search of a theory to support the proposed research and to satisfy his/her advisor.
The search is often unsuccessful because of the student’s misconception of what constitutes a “theoretical framework.” The framework may actually be a theory, but not necessarily.These research questions still need to be transformed into testable statistical hypotheses, but they are ready to be presented to the dissertation advisor.The advisor looks at the questions and says: “This looks like a promising study, but what is your theoretical framework?This is especially true for theory driven research (typically quantitative) that is attempting to test the validity of existing theory.However, this narrow definition of a theoretical framework is commonly not aligned with qualitative research paradigms that are attempting to develop theory, for example, grounded theory, or research falling into the categories of description and interpretation research (Peshkin, ).The following story may remind you of an experience you or one of your classmates have had.Doctoral students live in fear of hearing these now famous words from their thesis advisor: “This sounds like a promising study, but what is your theoretical framework?In particular, much of the research focuses on the cognitive levels of the questions asked by the teacher and how these questions influence student achievement.It appears that the research findings exhibit no clear pattern.The student immediately begins a manual and computer search of the literature on questioning in the classroom.The student notices that the research findings on the effectiveness of questioning strategies are rather equivocal.