Summary Conclusions Recommendations Research Paper

Summary Conclusions Recommendations Research Paper-31
This study focuses on the plasma processing of materials, a technology that impacts and is of vital importance to several of the largest manufacturing industries in the world.Foremost among these industries is the electronics industry, in which plasma-based processes are indispensable for the manufacture of very large-scale integrated (VLSI) microelectronic circuits (or chips).

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In this country, the plasma equipment industry is composed of many small companies loosely connected to integrated circuit manufacturers.

In Japan, on the other hand, equipment vendors and device manufacturers are tightly linked and are often parts of the same company.

For example, graduate programs specifically focused on plasma processing are rare because of insufficient funding of university research programs in this field.

By contrast, both Japan and France have national initiatives that support education and research in plasma processing.

: In recent years, the number of applications requiring plasmas in the processing of materials has increased dramatically.

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Plasma processing is now indispensable to the fabrication of electronic components and is widely used in the aerospace industry and other industries. economy and national defense, renewed support for low-energy plasma science is imperative.Thus Chapter 3 further elucidates plasma processing of electronic materials and, in particular, the use of plasmas in fabricating microelectronic components.The plasma equipment industry is an integral part of the electronics industry and has experienced dramatic growth in recent years because of the increasing use of plasma processes to meet the demands of fabricating devices with continually shrinking dimensions.The opportunities for materials processing stem from the ability of a plasma to provide a highly excited medium that has no chemical or physical counterpart in a natural, equilibrium environment.Plasmas alter the normal pathways through which chemical systems evolve from one stable state to another, thus providing the potential to produce materials with properties that are not attainable by any other means.However, the United States is seeing a serious decline in plasma reactor development that is critical to plasma processing steps in the manufacture of VLSI microelectronic circuits. : The demand for technology development is outstripping scientific understanding of many low-energy plasma processes.The central scientific problem underlying plasma processing concerns the interaction of low-energy collisional plasmas with solid surfaces.Because of the diversity of applications and the multidisciplinary nature of the science, scientific understanding lags technology. A summary of the many industrial applications of plasma-based systems for processing materials is included in Chapter 2.Electronics and aerospace are the two major industries that are served by plasma processing technologies, although the automotive industry is likely to become a significant user of plasma-processed materials like those now in widespread use in the aerospace industry.Understanding this problem requires knowledge and expertise drawn from plasma physics, atomic physics, condensed matter physics, chemistry, chemical engineering, electrical engineering, materials science, computer science, and computer engineering. laboratories have made many excellent contributions to plasma processing research—making fundamental discoveries, developing numerical algorithms, and inventing new diagnostic techniques. Specifically, plasma processing is an essential element in the synthesis and processing arsenal for manufacturing electronic, photonic, ceramic, composite, high-performance metal, and alloy materials.In the absence of a coordinated approach, the diversity of the applications and of the science tends to diffuse the focus of both. However, poor coordination and inefficient transfer of insights gained from this research have inhibited its use in the design of new plasma reactors and processes. : Currently, computer-based modeling and plasma simulation are inadequate for developing plasma reactors.

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