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Aggression can be directly learned through operant conditioning, involving positive and negative reinforcement and punishment.Bandura proposed that aggression can also be learnt by the indirect mechanism of observational learning.As noted in this article citing Bandura (1962), Schunk (1992) highlighted the fact that Bandura proposed his theory that of “in social situations, people often learn much more rapidly simply by observing the behaviour of others.” In Bandura’s Social learning theory, Bandura (1992) comment that the learning processes through observation from models’ actions; and by observing their models, learners thereon acquire the skills, knowledge, behaviour and values presented that are relevant in terms of the reciprocal interactions: the observer, the surrounding environment and their behaviours.
Firstly, the observers determine their models and identify the actions performed with awareness of events occurred; secondly observers act cognitively as they are in the process of transforming the actions observed into either visual or verbal form to their own reasoning and understanding in order to remember their observations; thirdly the motor reproduction of actions observed whether if they acquire the requirements of performing the observed actions; and lastly, the vicarious reinforcement towards their performed actions.
Serving as a main driving force of motivation, the reinforcement received from the surrounding environment after the first use of observed actions will determine if it is suitable for the future usage of the observed actions.
Linking to Skinners’ reinforcement concept, the chance of learners is found performing observed actions only if the learner received “positive reinforcements” and “no-consequence” reinforcement.
It is obvious that learners repeat the actions if positive reinforcements are received, but also, in terms of the “no-consequence” reinforcement, based on the intention to” find out what is going to happen” if they perform this action, learners will have no hesitation into seeking for the answer and hoping that the same result of positive reinforcement might occur.
This learning is simply acquired through observation of how the observer performed the actions.
Social Learning Theory Of Aggression Essay
Example of this learning in terms of classroom context could be the learning of how to underline.
Learners observe how educator places their ruler under the designated text and underline with their writing material, as the process is manageable, the learner may acquire the skill immediately without difficulties.
In summary, the four process of observational learning determine the significant occurrence of learning.
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