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In recognizing that improving adolescents’ access to high-quality information and services is essential for ameliorating negative health outcomes, key stakeholders in Kenya have proposed policies and programs regarding adolescent SRH, including those related to sexuality education.Implementation of new policies, however, has been difficult in the absence of official legislation to enforce them.
Despite efforts targeting these reproductive health issues, recent studies indicate a persistently high need for SRH information and services, further emphasizing the need for high-quality sexuality education.
Reviews of policies and curricula pertaining to sexuality education have shown that while many countries have established curricula, little is known about their use in schools—the degree of implementation, the mode and quality of the instruction, the existence of program monitoring and evaluation tools, the adequacy and quality of teacher training, the level of support for or opposition to the subject, and the effectiveness of existing programs in achieving desired knowledge and behavioral outcomes among students.
Small-scale reviews of school-based programs run by nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) have been conducted in Kenya, but there has not been a review of the government’s sexuality education program in schools.
A major challenge in this effort has been to reconcile rights-based approaches that emphasize adolescents’ right to comprehensive SRH information and services with deeply rooted conservative approaches that stigmatize or denounce certain aspects of SRH education and services, such as improving access to condoms.
The legal and policy environments are discussed in Chapter 3.