Risk Assessment Phd Thesis

Risk Assessment Phd Thesis-30
An individual landslide-triggering event (e.g., intense or prolonged rainfall, earthquake, snow melting) can involve a single slope or a group of slopes extending for a few hectares, or can affect thousands of square kilometres spanning major physiographic and climatic regions.Total landslide area produced by an individual triggering event ranges from a few tens of square meters to hundreds of square kilometres.

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Where appropriate, I provide a brief description of the topographic, environmental and thematic data used to perform landslide susceptibility zonings, landslide hazard assessments, and landslide risk evaluations. In this chapter, I describe the study areas where the research illustrated and discussed in the following chapters was conducted.

Where appropriate, I provide a brief description of the topographic, environmental and thematic data used to perform landslide susceptibility zonings, landslide hazard assessments, and landslide risk evaluations. Any serious attempt at ascertaining landslide hazard or at evaluating landslide risk must begin with the collection of information on where landslides are located. The simplest form of landslide mapping is a landslide inventory, which records the location and, where known, the date of occurrence and types of landslides that have left discernable traces in an area (Hansen, 1984; Mc Calpin, 1984; Wieczorek, 1984).

I then introduce a probabilistic model to determine landslide hazard, and I test the model at different spatial scales.

Next I show how to determine landslide risk at different scales using a variety of approaches, including probabilistic methods and heuristic geomorphological investigations.

Inventory maps can be prepared by different techniques, depending on their scope, the extent of the study area, the scales of base maps and aerial photographs, the quality and detail of the accessible information, and the resources available to carry out the work (Guzzetti et al., 2000).

In this chapter, I first critically discuss the various types of landslide inventories and the methods and techniques used to prepare them.However, the lessons learned in these areas are general and applicable to other areas in Italy and elsewhere.Landslides play an important role in the evolution of landforms and represent a serious hazard in many areas of the World.For each area, I provide general information on the type and abundance of landslides and on the local setting, including morphology, lithology, structure, climate, and other physiographic characteristics.For some of the areas, I give information on the type and extent of damage caused by the slope failures.In places, fatalities and economic damage caused by landslides are larger than those caused by other natural hazards, including earthquakes, volcanic eruptions and floods.Due to the extraordinary breadth of the spectrum of landslide phenomena, no single method exists to identify and map landslides, to ascertain landslide hazards, and to evaluate the associated risk.Then, I present landslide inventories of different types and scales prepared for Italy, the Umbria Region, and for selected areas in the Umbria Region, including the Collazzone area. Any serious attempt at ascertaining landslide hazard or at evaluating landslide risk must begin with the collection of information on where landslides are located. The simplest form of landslide mapping is a landslide inventory, which records the location and, where known, the date of occurrence and types of landslides that have left discernable traces in an area (Hansen, 1984; Mc Calpin, 1984; Wieczorek, 1984).Then, I present landslide inventories of different types and scales prepared for Italy, the Umbria Region, and for selected areas in the Umbria Region, including the Collazzone area. The information shown on landslide inventories can be used for a variety of analyses, including: (i) investigating landslide spatial abundance, through the production of landslide density maps; (ii) comparing inventory maps obtained from different sources (e.g., archive and geomorphological) for the same area; (iii) evaluating the completeness of the inventories; (iv) ascertaining landslide geographical persistence, by comparing event and geomorphological inventories; (v) estimating the frequency of slope failure occurrence, by analysing historical catalogues of landslide events or multi-temporal inventory maps; (vi) obtaining the statistics of landslide size; (vii) ascertaining landslide susceptibility and hazards, including the validation of the obtained susceptibility and hazard forecasts; (viii) determining the possible impact of landslides on built-up areas or the infrastructure; and (ix) contributing to establish levels of landslide risk.The lifetime of a single mass movement ranges from a few seconds in the case of individual rock falls, to several hundreds and possibly thousands of years in the case of large dormant landslides.In this chapter, I describe the study areas where the research illustrated and discussed in the following chapters was conducted.

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