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However, there is little empirical research exploring which components of the reformed system might have contributed to this growth.Using longitudinal data, I apply a local regression discontinuity design to identify the effects of more frequent classroom observations, a cornerstone of Tennessee evaluation reform, on average student achievement scores.In particular, teachers rated as effective are more likely to prefer performance-based pay than teachers rated ineffective.
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Research papers linked to the ASPIRES and ASPIRES 2 projects.
Although the receipt of observations should influence observation scores, the differentiated assignment of observations to teachers should not.
I apply a two-stage least squares regression discontinuity design to teacher panel data, exploiting discontinuities in Tennessee's differentiated assignment of observations, and find strong evidence of substantially negative bias.
Several state policies link high-stakes consequences to teacher evaluation scores, which tend to be heavily weighted by observation scores.
However, research has only recently investigated the validity of these scores in modern teacher evaluation systems.In this study, we examine three types of school-level attributes that may influence teachers' decisions to enter or transfer schools: malleable school processes, structural features of employment, and school characteristics.Using adaptive conjoint analysis survey design with a sample of teachers from low-performing urban, turnaround schools in Tennessee, we find that five of the seven most highly valued features of schools are malleable processes: consistent administrative support, consistent enforcement of discipline, school safety, small class sizes, and availability of high-quality professional development.We focus instead on the distribution of principal quality, examining how multiple proxies for quality, including experience, teachers' survey assessments of leaders, and rubric-based practice ratings assigned by principals' supervisors, vary by measures of school advantage, using administrative data from Tennessee.By virtually every quality measure, we find that schools serving larger fractions of low-income students, students of color, and low-achieving students are led by less qualified, less effective principals.Occasionally, distinguished scholars selected by the Dean of Boston University Wheelock College of Education & Human Development, in consultation with the Editorial Review Board will be invited to write reflections.Recruiting and retaining teachers can be challenging for many schools, especially in low-performing urban schools in which teachers turn over at higher rates.Simulation evidence suggests that hiring and turnover vary in relative importance to principal sorting patterns according to the measure of quality examined, and that differential principal improvement across contexts may matter as well.Complementary analyses of national survey data corroborate our main results.Using a unique dataset on over 4,500 CTs, we compare evaluation scores during years these teachers served as CTs compared to years they did not.In years they served as CTs, teachers had significantly better observation ratings and somewhat better achievement gains, though not always at significant levels.