Banknotes may be contaminated during transaction, handling, storage, and upon contact with dirty surfaces.
Unhygienic practices such as wetting fingers with saliva prior to money counting can introduce an array of bacteria to the notes [9, 10].
Genotypic identification was carried out using PCR and 16S r DNA sequencing.
Antibiotic resistance genes of some isolates were detected using PCR technique. All Sudanese banknotes were found to be contaminated with pathogenic bacteria.
A total of 135 Sudanese banknotes were randomly collected from different sources: hospitals (f = 45), food sellers (f = 45), and transporters (f = 45).
Five “mint” brand new notes were collected from the bank before being touched by bankers; these were used as controls.
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Collected notes were categorized according to their physical status as clean (f = 36), dirty (f = 69), very dirty (f = 30), and mint (f = 5) and transported in sterile plastic Petri dishes to the microbiological laboratory for bacterial isolation, identification, and antibiotic sensitivity testing.
The banknotes were moistened with sterile distilled water, swabbed on both sides, and swab inoculated onto 5% blood agar plates, selective and differential media (Mac Conkey’s agar, cetrimide agar, xylose lysine deoxycholate agar, and Mannitol salt agar).