In recent research (e.g., Mac Arthur et al., 2015; Koster and Bouwer, 2016; Raedts et al., 2017), reflection is often a part of curricula directed at promoting self-regulated learning strategies in order to enhance writing performance.
These studies suggest a positive correlation between self-regulated learning curricula, including reflective activities, and writing performance.
Observers were explicitly encouraged to carry out different (meta)cognitive, reflective activities, by asking them to compare and evaluate the model's performance.
However, reflection was not prompted in the learning-by-doing conditions, and therefore did not necessarily take place, which may have influenced the findings.
We systematically compare observational learning and learning-by-doing in learning to write a complex, academic text, with a specific focus on the role of reflection in both methods.
In addition to writing performance, we also examine the effects on self-efficacy beliefs and the extent to which learners are satisfied with the instructional methods, because we conjecture that reflection may have an impact on those factors as well.
When it came time to put pen to pad, or fingers to keys in this case, I tried to break up the paper in segments.
Doing this allowed me to focus my thoughts rather than be overwhelmed by the whole exercise.
In the learning-by-doing condition they learned by performing writing tasks.
Half of the students reflected on either the models' or their own performance.