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When people think about government, they think of elected officials.The attentive public knows these officials who live in the spotlight but not the public administrators who make governing possible; it generally gives them little thought unless it is to criticize “government bureaucrats.” Yet we are in contact with public administration almost from the moment of birth, when registration requirements are met, and our earthly remains cannot be disposed of without final administrative certification.Much of the policy-making activities of public administration is done by large, specialized governmental agencies (micro-administration).
When vacancies occur by death, resignation, or for other reasons, new qualified persons are selected according to clearly defined rules. In the studies of the 1880s and later scholars have collected an impressive body of data how best to carry out and manage routine operations to gain productivity in industry.
Principles of scientific business management were worked out and people were trained to follow them.
Later successful business was seen as the model for the proper management of government, and the field of public administration was seen as a field of business, because management of all organizations in both the fields involves planning the activities and establishing goals; organizing work activities; staffing and training; directing or decision-making; coordinating to assure that the various work activities come together; report- ing the status of work and problems to both supervisors and subordinates; and budgeting to assure that work activities correspond to fiscal planning, accounting, and control.
Some scholars argued that administration is a more general term and a more generic process than management.
Those who had been in favor might now be out of favor.
Weak rulers followed strong rulers, foolish monarchs succeeded wise monarchs – but all were dependent on the army, which supplied the continuity that enabled the empire to endure so long.Administration takes place at factories, schools, hospitals, prisons, insurance companies, or welfare agencies, whether these organizations were private or public.Accordingly they started speaking about business and public administration.But to implement their decisions public administration also requires numerous profit and nonprofit agencies, banks and hospitals, district and city governments (macro-administration).Thus, public administration may be defined as a complex political process involving the authoritative implementation of legitimated policy choices.But without their knowledge, diligence, and creativity, government would be ineffective and inefficient. , and managerial aspects of public administration are transformed by public administrators into the work of government. Public Administration is an Academic Field: Public administration within an academic interdisciplinary ... Public Policymaking: Public policymaking is hierarchical in nature.The broadest policy is made at the top, but officials at lower levels ...Large-scale administrative organization has existed from early times. The emperor in turn had to rely on the personal loyalty of his subordinates, who maintained themselves by the personal support from their underlings, down to rank-and file personnel on the fringes of the empire.The ancient empires of Egypt, Persia, Greece, Rome, China, and later the Holy Roman Empire as well as recent colonial empires of Britain, Spain, Russia, Portugal, and France – they all organized and maintained political rule over wide areas and large populations by the use of quite a sophisticated administrative apparatus and more or less skilled administrative functionaries. The emperor carried an enormous work load reading or listening to petitions, policy arguments, judicial claims, appeals for favors, and the like in an attempt to keep the vast imperial machine functioning. In a system based on personal preferment, a change of emperor disrupted the entire arrangements of government.There is an obvious difference between administration of business, or private organization, and administration of public organizations.Thus, the word public in ‘public administration’ is meaningful, and the study of public affairs will have to take into account not only management subjects common to both public and private sectors, but also the special environment in which the public servant has to live, an environment constituted of the mix of administration, policy making, and politics.