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This thesis investigates the removal and removal mechanisms of engineered nanomaterials and nanoparticles in simulated drinking water treatment plants.
Several functionalities are typically added onto nanocarriers but the most crucial feature of those carriers intended to be administered intravenously is that they should possess a long residence time in blood circulation.
The present review focusses on the mesoporous nanoparticles due to their great promise in nanomedicine and concentrates on their coatings because it is the outmost layer which dictates their first interactions with the surroundings and often determines their biofate.
The results demonstrate that size and surface charge of Au NP interact in an interrelated fashion to modulate nanoparticle internalization by cells, providing an engineering strategy for designing nanomaterials for drug delivery applications.
Later, I engineered an environmentally responsive nanoparticle-protein interface for real time hydrogen peroxide (H) sensing and monitoring of cellular oxidative stress.
Particularly, the potential release into aquatic environment of these new potential pollutants raises concerns on the security of resources used for drinking water production.
It can also create significant challenges to water treatment facilities in terms of operational optimization and proper process control.In both examples, the treatment of these genetic diseases lies in thedelivery of synthetic nucleic acids into diseased cells, the former being calledgene replacement therapy (Dobson, 2006a), and the latter being called RNAinterference (RNAi) therapy (Whitehead et al., 2009).While these techniqueshave long been in use as genetic research tools for gene transfection or silencingin vitro, their translation for use in clinical disease treatment has yet to beachieved.It is essentialfor new designs to be extensively tested for toxicity and efficiency in humancells before they can be successfully released into the clinic.As part of this effort, this Ph D project has investigated two different NP designstrategies for drug delivery: 1) the use of a magnetic field (MF) and a CPP toincrease the delivery of iron oxide magnetic NPs (m NPs) to cells grown in tissueequivalent3D collagen gels, and 2) gold NPs (Au NPs) for the delivery of si RNA tosilence the c-myc oncogene for cancer treatment.This feat can be aided by the attachment of additional functionalmolecules such as cell penetrating peptides (CPPs), targeting peptides,additional drug types and molecules for imaging during treatment.Manydifferent NP design strategies are currently under development.Off-campus UMass Amherst users: To download campus access dissertations, please use the following link to log into our proxy server with your UMass Amherst user name and password.Non-UMass Amherst users: Please talk to your librarian about requesting this dissertation through interlibrary loan.The responsiveness of this system demonstrates the utility of co-engineering synthetic-biological hybrid nanomaterials.Moreover, I developed gold nanoparticle-stabilized nanocapsules (NPSCs) for gene delivery to enhance cancer therapy and immunomodulation efficiency.