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He defines the digital computer to be those machines “intended to carry out any operations which could be done by a human computer.The human computer is supposed to be following fixed rules; he has no authority to deviate from them in any detail.”  Turing argues that the digital computer, through proper programming, can imitate any other similar ‘discrete state machines.’ It would therefore be unnecessary to use any machine other than the digital computer in the imitation game—i.e., Turing argues that only digital computers have the potential to mirror the human thought process.
The machine can alter the scanned symbol and its behavior is in part determined by that symbol, but the symbols on the tape elsewhere do not affect the behavior of the machine.
However, the tape can be moved back and forth through the machine, this being one of the elementary operations of the machine.
Thus, a computer will be able to build its own understandings, just as a child does.
Turing’s paper is very much an investigation into the prospects of there ever existing a tool which is able to flawlessly and gracefully function as a brain outside of ourselves—the ultimate spatial extension of the human intellect.
I read Alan Turing's paper "Computing Machinery and Intelligence" a few times and it isn't clear what exactly is he arguing for.
He proposes the imitation game, but doesn't form a concrete conclusion.
It seems like the current consensus is that passing the Turing test doesn't signify human-like intelligence or thinking. Human-like intelligence must necessarily pass the Turing test, but the reverse isn't true.
My understanding is that the Turing test is like the digit recognition test in computer vision.
The goal of those being interrogated is to fool the interrogator.
Thus, Turing rephrases his initial question: “Will the interrogator decide wrongly as often when the game is played like this as he does when the game is played between a man and a woman?