And shall the son of peace take part in the battle when it does not become him even to sue at law?And shall he apply the chain, and the prison, and the torture, and the punishment, who is not the avenger even of his own wrongs? Such statements may be given the meaning which we wish them to bear the quoting of Scripture is ever an unsatisfactory form of evidence; but there is no direct statement in the New Testament in favour of war, no saying of Christ which, fairly interpreted, could be understood to regard this proof of human imperfection as less condemnable than any other. When men shall be without sin, nation shall rise up against nation no more.
Neither of them would submit points, in which their honour and their passions were warmly interested, to the slow determination of a judicial inquiry. 14, 15, above) has considerable interest, Origen looks upon the active participation of priests in warfare as something which everyone would admit to be impossible. * Out of the ruins of the old feudal system arose the modern state as a free independent unity.
Both trusted to their swords for the decision of the contest." Robertson's History of Charhs V. * See also the Querela Pads, 630 B., (Opera, IV.) :~" Whosoever preaches Christ, preaches peace." Erasmus even goes th length of saying that the most iniquitious peace is better than the most just war (op. Private war between individuals or classes of society was now branded as a breach of the peace: it became the exclusive right of kings to appeal to Translator s Introduction 21 force.
Hence the wars of the Crusades against the infidel were holy wars, and appear as a new element in the history of civilisation.
The nations of ancient times had known only civil and foreign war.
" The doctrine of the Church developed early in the opposite direction.
It was its righting spirit and not a love of peace that made Christianity a state religion under Constantine.
The early Chris- tians were reproached under the Roman Emperors, before the time of Constautine, with avoiding the citizen's duty of military service.
* " To those enemies of our faith,' V v wrote Origen (Contra Celsum, VIII., Ch.
This is the spiritual sword which Christ brought into the world strife, not with the unbeliever, but with the lower self: meekness and the spirit of the Word of God are the weapons with which man must fight for the Faith.
VI.), and here lies the way of Translator s Introduction 13 righteousness (Rom. 19): but Christ came not to bring peace, but a sword (Matth. But man the individual can attain peace only when he has overcome the world, when, in the struggle with his lower self, he has come forth victorious.