This is what Gardner and Lambert (1972) defined as integrative motivation and instrumental motivation.Specifically, integrative motivation is the desire to participate in the activities of the target language community and develop in their language (Gardner, 2001).Specifically, for language learning motivation can be understood as learners’ orientation with regard to the goal of learning a second language.
Yet, we don't really know what motivation is or whether it actually exists neither.
One of leading researcher in language learning motivation, Dornyei (2001) claims that motivation is an abstract, hypothetical concept that we use to explain why people think and behave as they do.
Because of that, to motivate students efficiently is the most recurrent and essential concerns of teachers.
The research on leaning motivation mow has become a hot issue in the area of foreign language teaching.
Motivation is the most important factor among age, personality and motivation which affect the Second Language Acquisition chiefly (Cook, 2000). Motivation is defined as "the choices people make as to what experiences or goals they will approach or avoid and the degree of effort they will exert in this respect" (Keller, 1983).
Ellis (1994) considers motivation as the exertion which learners contribute into learning a L2 as a result of their need or desire to learn it.The extrinsic motivation is motivation which is engaged in an activity as a means to an end.Individuals who have extrinsic motivation work on tasks because they believe that participant will result in desirable outcomes such as a reward, teacher praise, or avoidance of punishment (Pintrich & Schunk, 1996).And instrumental motivation means the desire to acquire a foreign language to find out employment or improve their self-cultivation or improve the social status (Dörnyei, 2001; Gardner & Lambert, 1972).There are another two types of motivation: intrinsic motivation and extrinsic motivation (Deci & Ryan, 1985).Motivation is one of the most important factors which influence language learners’ success or failure in learning the language.Motivation is defined as "the choices people make as to what experiences or goals they will approach or avoid and the degree of effort they will exert in this respect" (Keller, 1983).Chinese university students who are motivated to learn English are more efficient at becoming fluent in English.According to Cook (2000), it believes strongly that acquisition and learning are not related and that language can only be acquired.There are two types of motivation: intrinsic motivation and extrinsic motivation (Deci & Ryan, 1985).In socio-educational aspect, motivation also can be defined into integrative motivation and instrumental motivation (Gardner, 1972).