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The different possible codes, and the amino acids they code for, were summarised in a previous post that looked at amino acid structures.A different type of RNA, transfer RNA, is responsible for transporting amino acids to the m RNA, and allowing them to join together. Errors can occur in copying DNA’s sequence to m RNA, and these random errors are referred to as mutations.Though there are only 20 amino acids, the human body can combine them to produce a staggering figure of approximately 100,000 proteins.
She had yet to publish her findings when Watson and Crick obtained access to them, without her knowledge.
However, her failure to win a Nobel prize is not an oversight, but merely a consequence of the committee’s policy that Nobel prizes cannot be awarded posthumously.
Firstly, it contains a different sugar group in the sugar phosphate backbone of the molecule: ribose instead of deoxyribose.
Secondly, it still uses the bases A, G and C, but instead of the base T, it uses uracil, U.
As the purpose of this post was primarily to examine the chemical structure of DNA, the discussion of replication and protein synthesis has been kept brief and relatively simplistic.
If you’re interested in reading more into the subject, check out the links provided below!
The structure of uracil is very similar to thymine, with the absence of a methyl (CH) group being the only difference.
Once the DNA’s nucleotides have been copied, the m RNA can leave the nucleus of the cell, and makes its way to the cytoplasm, where protein synthesis takes place.
They can lead to an amino acid’s code being changed to that of another, or even rendered unreadable.
A number of diseases can result from mutations during DNA replication, including cystic fibrosis, and sickle-cell anaemia, but it’s worth noting that mutations can also have positive effects.