Contempt Expression Relativity Thesis

Contempt Expression Relativity Thesis-54
Hence Cosmides and Tooby's startling conclusion: "our modern skulls house a stone age mind." While not, strictly speaking, "presentist," this view freezes human emotions (and other responses) into one form-the form that we have today and that was formed during the prehistoric era.[13] Scholars have confronted these studies in two main ways: by critiquing the experiments (of psychologists) and the assumptions (of the evolutionists) that have produced the universalist/presentist positions; and by asserting the social constructionist theory of emotions.Finally, I consider how and why emotional change takes place, urging that the history of emotions be integrated into other sorts of histories-social, political, and intellectual.

Hence Cosmides and Tooby's startling conclusion: "our modern skulls house a stone age mind." While not, strictly speaking, "presentist," this view freezes human emotions (and other responses) into one form-the form that we have today and that was formed during the prehistoric era.[13] Scholars have confronted these studies in two main ways: by critiquing the experiments (of psychologists) and the assumptions (of the evolutionists) that have produced the universalist/presentist positions; and by asserting the social constructionist theory of emotions.Finally, I consider how and why emotional change takes place, urging that the history of emotions be integrated into other sorts of histories-social, political, and intellectual.

Tags: Compare And Contrast Essay Summer Or WinterEssays Of Smoking CigarettesAlgebra 2 Homework SolverUc Transfer EssayWhat Makes A Good Teacher EssayThe Best Day Of My Life Essay Spm

If emotions are, as many scientists think, biological entities, universal within all human populations, do they-indeed can they-have much of a history at all?

Once it is determined that they are less universal than claimed (without denying their somatic substratum), a host of problems and opportunities for the history of emotions emerge.

Rather, their work has led above all to fine micro-studies of cultures whose emotions differ from our own.

Catherine Lutz's book on the Ifaluk (inhabitants of an atoll in the Caroline Islands of Micronesia) is a good example of this.

Rosenwein What are some of the general methodological issues involved in writing a history of the emotions?

Contempt Expression Relativity Thesis

Before answering this question, we need to address a major problem.They therefore they lack "ecological validity." Some studies suggest that in real life few facial expressions of emotion resemble those in staged photographs and, further, that most facial expressions are ambiguous, requiring contextual clues to make them intelligible.[20] Paul Turke, an evolutionist who takes issue with Cosmides and Tooby, challenges the idea that emotions were formed once and for all in the Old Stone Age.He points out that it is an empirical issue whether or not prehistoric culture was stable while changes in the Neolithic period were "too rapid" to allow for adaptation.[21] Moreover, we know rather little about the Paleolithic period, and hypotheses about it are (ironically) largely informed by what we know about emotions in our own time.[22] Even if the Paleolithic era were the only period of human adaptation, it is not clear that we would therefore have "stone-age minds." According to evolutionary biologist Richard Alexander, the social and cultural challenges of the Old Stone Age were every bit as complex (and changing) as those of our own, and the kinds of adaptation required then-selecting individuals who had the best skills for negotiating status, masking self-interest, and forming alliances-made for well-adapted humans today.The subject was then asked to choose from among three photographs of faces the one that best expressed that emotion.For example, for "happiness," Ekman's assistant told the subject the following story: "His (her) friends have come, and he (she) is happy." As Sorenson observed, "It was likely that at least some responses were influenced by feedback between translator and subject ...They, too, have tended to work within Ekman's paradigm.Elizabeth Carter and Kevin Pelphrey, for example, recently published a study using functional magnetic resonance imaging (f MRI) to assess brain activation when subjects recognized happy and angry faces.[4] They found that angry faces activated expected areas of the brain (the amygdala and superior temporal sulcus) as well as unanticipated areas (the lateral fusiform gyrus, for example), while happy faces activated other brain regions.Each module represents an adaptation by hunter-gatherers to relatively simple and constantly recurring demands: "finding mates, hunting animals, gathering plant foods, negotiating with friends, defending ourselves against aggression, raising children, choosing a good habitat, and so on ...Those whose circuits were better designed for solving these problems left more children, and we are descended from them." [12] Cosmides and Tooby assume that the human mind has not changed since this period; people had no time to adapt to the conditions-relatively populous and permanent communities-of the Neolithic and subsequent periods.The suggestion that free exchange of information was ‘cheating' was quite incomprehensible to the Fore and alien to their view of language as an element of cooperative interaction among close associates." [14] Reviewing the testing situation, psychologist James A.Russell pointed out that the Fore people may have thought that the faces were responding to situations, not expressing emotions.[15] In that case, the experiment was not particularly about emotions.

SHOW COMMENTS

Comments Contempt Expression Relativity Thesis

The Latest from gbo33.ru ©