In France, Michel de Montaigne's three volume Essais in the mid 1500s contain over 100 examples widely regarded as the predecessor of the modern essay.
Societies that have patterns fixed by ‘heredity’ may be called ‘bio-social’, and those fixed by ‘culture’ may be called ‘socio-cultural’. Read More Essay on the Classification of Social Groups – Social groups are not only innumerable but also diverse. A systematic study of groups demands a scientific classification.
But such a classification is difficult to be made because of the very complex nature of the group. Read More Essay on the Impact of Positivism on Social Thinking – Comte’s “positivism” has its own impact on the world of social thinking.
Essay on Bio-Social Systems – According to Kingsley Davis, societies may be classified into two broad types depending upon the nature of social patterns.
Social patterns are determined by heredity or culture.
These three poles (or worlds in which the essay may exist) are: Huxley adds that the most satisfying essays "..the best not of one, not of two, but of all the three worlds in which it is possible for the essay to exist." The word essay derives from the French infinitive essayer, "to try" or "to attempt".
In English essay first meant "a trial" or "an attempt", and this is still an alternative meaning.
In the 20th century, a number of essayists tried to explain the new movements in art and culture by using essays (e.g., T. As with the novel, essays existed in Japan several centuries before they developed in Europe with a genre of essays known as zuihitsu — loosely connected essays and fragmented ideas.
Zuihitsu have existed since almost the beginnings of Japanese literature.
In the 18th and 19th centuries, Edmund Burke and Samuel Taylor Coleridge wrote essays for the general public.
The early 19th century, in particular, saw a proliferation of great essayists in English – William Hazlitt, Charles Lamb, Leigh Hunt and Thomas de Quincey all penned numerous essays on diverse subjects. Virginia Woolf, Edmund Wilson, and Charles du Bos wrote literary criticism essays.