Besides these styles, there are Chicago, Turabian, AAA, AP, and more.
Only use the most current edition of the citation style.
Search for information about academic requirements in 6th edition American Psychological Association?
Our guide will give you the answers to essential questions.
To indicate that this is your invention, not a formal title, your coined title should be enclosed in square brackets (, p. Once you’ve given the author name(s), the year, and the name of the thing being referred to, anything and everything else in the reference entry constitutes the answer to this final question of “where.” References come in more varieties than Baskin-Robbins has ice creams, though, so this portion of a reference has the most permutations.
It ranges from the basic journal name, volume, and page span for journal articles to the online versions where that information is supplemented with a DOI or URL.
That approach has been specifically illustrated in this blog already, by earlier postings about manufacturing reference entries for Twitter, Facebook, and Wikipedia. Where does this reference come from (or, Where can my reader find this reference)? On the rare occasion when no authorship is attributed and, per APA style, you revert to a title entry (e.g., , p. 205, example 30), this initial whodunnit is still answered. Note that here I am referring to the title of the thing referenced itself, not to any larger “container” in which the specific thing referenced may reside.
Now I’d like to teach you how to fish, as it were, by taking a more general look. You just need to know the basic building blocks—namely, the generic elements that nearly all references in APA style contain—and then you can adapt them to your particular needs. To be less cryptic and more lengthy, the quartet of queries can be expanded thus: Who created this reference? The title entry implicitly tells your reader, “Authorship was checked for but despite the best efforts of the citer, no such information was either given or obtainable.” When was this reference created? (Information about that container will be part of the fourth generic-reference element, discussed further on.) For instance, as regards a journal article, all of the “what” element is the title of the article, not the name of the journal in which that article appears.
The sixth edition of the lays the requirements out pretty bluntly. In most cases, a year will suffice to answer this question. (As said above, that journal name will be used later on.) So, too, with a chapter in an edited book: The “what” is the title of the chapter only.
“Each entry usually contains the following elements: author, year of publication, title, and publishing data—all the information necessary for unique identification and library search” (p. Another way to think of these building blocks, a mnemonic to use in your own construction and review of references, is to remember four interrogatories: Who? A few reference types require more: for instance, year followed by month for papers and poster sessions presented at conferences (, pp. When no year is available or can be ascertained by hook or by crook, this element is maintained by using the abbreviation n.d., for “no date” (p. The name of the edited book in which the chapter resides is not the “what” described here.